Obesity is a medical problem and referred to as a complicated disease in which a person has too much body fat. It increases the risks of many diseases and health issues such as diabetes, cancer, respiratory problems, heart disease, high blood pressure and high cholesterol level.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obesity is a very common disease which affects about 42% of Americans in 2017-2018 having an age of 20 years or more.
Obesity is measured in term of body mass index (BMI) in which a person’s height and weight are taking into account. According to the CDC, obesity in adults is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) 30 or more. There are many factors which affect the BMI and body fat includes sex, age, muscles mass and ethnicity. Moreover, BMI does not differentiate between extra fat, bones mass or muscles mass. Even with these restrictions, BMI remains to be commonly used as a way to measure the size of a body.
According to BMI, the classification of obesity for 20 years old or more than 20 years old is:
|1||Under-weight||18.5 or under|
|2||Normal weight||18.5 to less than 25.0|
|3||Overweight||25.0 to less than 30.0|
|4||Obesity (class 1)||30.0 to less than 35.0|
|5||Obesity (class 2)||35.0 to less than 40.0|
|6||Obesity (class 3 ) (It is also known as extreme, morbid or severe obesity)||40.0 or more|
According to BMI, the classification of childhood obesity for more than 2 years and teenagers is:
|Class||BMI Range in Percentile|
|1||Under-weight||Greater than 5%|
|2||Normal body weight||5% to less than 85%|
|3||Overweight||85% to less than 95%|
|4||Obesity||95% or more|
Causes of Obesity
The most common factor for causing obesity is overeating and an inactive lifestyle. If your calories intake is more than calories consumed then you gain weight. According to the CDC, most of the Americans diet is high in calories which include high-calorie fast food and beverages. Due to this, they intake more calories before feeling full and it leads them to a greater risk of obesity.
There are many other causes of obesity which includes:
Overeating/more calories intake
According to nutritionists, your body becomes what you eat. If your eating pattern is moderate then you have a healthy body. But if you take more calories than the required amount than you are at a greater risk of obesity.
Inheritance means that transfer of characteristic from parents to offspring. These characters are transfer with the help of genes. In fact, genes affect the storage and fat distribution of fat in your body. They also control the conversion of food into energy, regulation of hunger and burning off calories during workout or exercise. Obesity will run into families after families due to inheritance and the same eating and physical activity habits.
Your body needs energy even at rest for the vital function of the body i.e. blood circulation, breathing and cells repairing. This energy is coming from metabolism. It is a biochemical process in which your body changes food which you eat into energy. If your metabolism is slow or did not convert your food into energy properly then you are at risk of developing obesity.
Physical inactivity or a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to gain weight. If you take more calories but did not have an active lifestyle to burn these calories then you are at the greater risk of obesity.
Diet plays an important role in overall health and fitness. If your diet is not healthy then it can cause many health problems including obesity. So, you should avoid high calories diet including fast foods, beverages, etc. Your diet plan should have a high portion of vegetables and fruits.
Liquid calories intake
Liquid calories intake is one of the common cause of obesity. People who drink alcohol and beverages like soft drinks can take more calories which contribute to significant weight gain.
Stress or anxiety
Cortisol is a stress hormone and performs many functions in our body. Secretion of cortisol in our body provided energy for proper functioning. Because cortisol can stimulate carbohydrate and fat metabolism for instant energy. It can also stimulate insulin and control blood sugar level. Due to these functions your appetite increases. So, prolonged or poorly managed stress may increase the secretions of cortisol which enhances your appetite and result being weight gain or obesity.
As you growing older your muscles mass become less and metabolic rate slower down which leads to gain weight.
Not enough sleeping
Sleeping is important for health and fitness. You should sleep 6 to 8 hours in a day. If you did not sleep enough than it can lead to hormonal disturbances which increase your appetite. Due to increase appetite your calories intake increases which increase the risk of obesity.
Hypothyroidism is also a cause of obesity. It is a condition in which thyroid glands did not develop an adequate amount of important hormones.
Female have a great risk of obesity because during pregnancy they gained weight which may be very difficult to lose.
Poly-cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
In this condition, female reproductive hormones disturbed which leads to an increase in the risk of obesity.
Osteoarthritis is a disease in which joints pain occur due to the stiffness of joints. It worsens with time, makes physical activities and daily task difficult. Due to osteoarthritis pain and disability anxiety and sleep disorders occur. All of these factors lead to gain weight and increases the risk of obesity.
Effects of Obesity on Health
Obesity is a major problem which can cause many other serious health issues such as diabetes type 2, heart disease, strokes, bowel cancer and breast cancer. It can also affect your life quality and cause mental issues such as low self-confidence, anxiety and depression.
An obese person can face many problems in doing daily activities and severe health problems. These problems are:
- Increased sweating
- Trouble in doing physical activities
- Joint pain
- Back pain
- Low self-esteem
- Low self-confidence
Obesity can also increase many serious health problems including:
- Diabetes type 2
- High cholesterol
- High blood pressure
- Coronary heart disease
- Metabolic syndrome
- Bowel cancer
- Womb cancer
- Breast cancer
- Digestive problems including gastro-oesophageal reflux disease etc.
- Fertility problems
- Sleep apnea
- Kidney disease
- Liver disease
- Pregnancy problems like pre-eclampsia or gestational diabetes.
Due to all of these problems you should lose weight and get rid of obesity. For losing weight read the following article.
- How to lose weight for good health and fitness?
- Loss Fat with Right Approach to Secure Muscles Endurance
- Best ways to improve your Physical Fitness and Health
Obesity is a worldwide problem which increases day by day due to overeating (intake of more calories), genetic problems, physical inactivity, metabolic factors, anxiety or stress, unhealthy diet, growing older or not having enough sleep. There are many other medical factors which can increase the risk of developing obesity. It can cause many serious health problems including high blood pressure, high cholesterol level, heart diseases, strokes, diabetes type 2, sleep apnea, liver diseases etc. For avoiding these problems you should be physically active and try to lose excess weight.